The following list of Dealers, Galleries, and Scholars was reproduced from the 2001 publication of the AAM Guide to Provenance Research (Washington, D.C.: America Association of Museums, 2001). We are grateful to Nancy Yeide, Konstantin Akinsha, and Amy Walsh for allowing us to reproduce it here.
A.C.A. (aka American Contemporary Art Gallery), New York
Founded by Herman Baron in 1932; particularly important during the Depression when the gallery was closely allied with militant artists' organizations.
Adelson Galleries, Boston and New York
Founded by Warren Adelson, Boston branch open 1965–72. Adelson directed the Coe Kerr Gallery 1974–90, when he opened the New York branch of Adelson Gallery, specializing in American Impressionists.
Kunsthandel AG, Lucerne
The successor to Böhler and Steinmeyer. Fragmentary records with Julius Böhler, Munich. [See also Böhler and Steinmeyer]
Thomas Agnew & Sons, London
Founded in 1817, located at its present address since 1876. Represents master paintings and drawings of European art from 1200 to 1850, British paintings and watercolors from the 17th to the 20th centuries, master prints, particularly by French Impressionist and post-Impressionist artists, and some contemporary British artists.
Charles Alan Gallery, New York
Established in 1952 by Charles Alan (1908–75), who had worked for Edith Halpert at the Downtown Gallery from 1945–53. Specialized in contemporary art. Felix Landau purchased the gallery in 1962 and renamed it the Landau-Alan Gallery. After Alan left in 1969 the gallery was known as the Felix Landau Gallery.
Louis Alexander Gallery, New York
Established by Louis Alexander Cohn.
Allard et Noel, Paris
American Art Gallery and American Art Association, New York
Founded by Rufus E. Moore as the Kurtz Gallery and renamed the American Art Gallery, dealing in American paintings and Oriental porcelain. Moore's interest in the gallery was bought out by James Fountain Sutton, who in 1883 formed a partnership with R. Austin Robertson and Thomas E. Kirby to establish the American Art Association. The Association began conducting auctions in 1885, with Kirby as auctioneer, and was sold in 1923 to Cortlandt Field Bishop.
T. R. Annan, Glasgow
Gallery maintains full records back to 1890s.
Ankrum Gallery, Los Angeles
Operated by Joan Ankrum, the gallery specialized in contemporary art. For four decades Ankrum was also the principal dealer for her nephew, the artist Morris Broderson.
Area X Gallery, New York
Contemporary art gallery located in the East Village 1984–87.
Argus Gallery, Madison, N.J.
Established in 1961 by Verdenal and Edward Johnson and E. Austin Goodwin.
Arnold & Tripp, Paris
Experts, c. 1909 located at 8 Rue Saint Georges, Paris.
Art Space, Los Angeles
Established in 1977 and closed in 1991. Director Lucy Adelman operated a gallery in a small house, exhibiting in 118 shows the works of young, emerging artists.
Antonin Artaud (1896–1948)
French poet, actor, painter, art critic, active correspondent; editor of Surrealist journal La révolution surréaliste, 1924–27.
Artists' Gallery, New York
Founded in 1936 by Hugh Stix and directed by Federica Beer-Monti. A nonprofit organization supported by contributions, it exhibited works of artists not represented by a commercial dealer, including Josef Albers and Louis Eilshemius. Closed 1962.
Artists in Residence, New York
Feminist co-operative art gallery founded 1972 by Dotty Attie.
Arwin Galleries, Detroit
Established in 1963 by Lester and Kathleen Arwin. Specialized in contemporary art. Closed in 1981.
R. Kirk Askew (1903–74)
New York art dealer. Owner 1937–69 of Durlacher Brothers, New York (manager of New York branch from c. 1923).
Associated American Artists, New York
Established in 1934 to promote the sale of prints through department stores. In 1935 they added oils, watercolors, and other media. Later the New York headquarters replaced the department store project.
Stephan von Auspitz, Vienna
Director of an Österreichische Kreditanstalt, Vienna. Following the bank's failure in 1932 the Austrian government seized the bank and the personal property of its directors, including the large collection of paintings owned by von Auspitz. Dutch businessman and collector David George van Beuningen purchased von Auspitz's collection of 2,143 paintings. After selecting what he wanted, van Beuningen consigned the remainder to Bachstitz to sell. Part of the collection was exhibited at Agnews, London, in 1931. Within two years Bachstitz had sold 1,200 objects from the collection.
Avanti Galleries, New York
Represented modern masters and post WWII European and American Art.
Art dealer who has worked for Galerie St. Étienne, New York, c. 1940-present.
Kunsthandel Kurt Bachstitz Gallery, Berlin, Munich, Amsterdam
Dealer in Old Master paintings, originally located in Berlin. Around 1922 Bachstitz opened a gallery in New York at the Ritz Carlton Hotel, moving in April 1931 to the Sherry Netherlands Hotel. Between 1931–32 Bachstitz sold part of the large group of paintings van Beuningen bought from the Viennese banker/collector Stephan von Auspitz. A Jew, Bachstitz fled Berlin and settled in Holland. He obtained a visa to Switzerland in 1942 through the intervention of his brother-in-law Hofer.
Franz Bader Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Specializing in contemporary sculpture, painting, and works on paper. Operated under various names: Franz Bader Gallery, Franz Bader Inc., Franz Bader Gallery and Bookshop. Emigrating to the United States in 1939, Bader first managed Whyte's Bookshop, where he introduced an art gallery featuring local artists. In 1953 he established his own gallery at 1705 G St. N.W., continuing to show local and young artists, as well as contemporary prints. Bader died in 1994, and the gallery mounted its final show in 1995.
Contemporary art curator, New York.
Herman Baron (1892–1961)
Herman Baron was the founder of the A.C.A. Galleries (also known as American Contemporary Art and A.C.A. Gallery) in 1932 and served as its director until his death in 1961.
Alfred Barr, New York
Art historian and former director of the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Adolphe Basler (1878–1949), Paris
Polish born, Parisian art dealer and critic of 20th-century art.
Esther Bear Gallery, Santa Barbara, Calif.
Specialized in contemporary art.
Galerie Bellier, Paris
Established c. 1930, the gallery specializes in 19th- and 20th-century paintings. Jean Claude Bellier was an expert on Corot.
Charles Beloe, Great Britain
Beloe was an art dealer, agent and exhibitor, familiar with some of the leading British painters of the mid-19th century, including Benjamin Robert Haydon and Sir George Hayter.
Billy Al Bengston
Painter, Los Angeles and Hawaii, Bengston founded Artist Studio, a gallery which showed primarily his own work and that of Ed Moses, Ken Price, and Ed Ruscha.
Galerie Berggruen, Paris
Heinz Berggruen (1914–2007) opened a shop in Paris after World War II, selling rare and limited editions. In 1952 he opened a gallery in Paris, becoming one of the most important post-war dealers in classic modern art—Picasso, Klee, Matisse, Léger, and Miro—with a large and significant clientele. After his retirement in 1982 he donated 90 works by Paul Klee to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In 2000, he sold his collection of 113 modern masterpieces to the German government.
Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris
Family of French dealer and publishers. Gallery founded in 1863 by Alexandre Bernheim and his elder brother Georges was a major promoter of 19th-century French academic and Impressionist paintings as well as the work of early 20th-century artists. Also owned part of Galerie Georges Petit in partnership with Étienne Bignou from 1920–33.
Adrien Beugniet, Paris
French art dealer.
Bignou Gallery, Paris and New York
Étienne Bignou (1891–1950) first worked for his stepfather, an art dealer on rue Lafitte, selling Old Master paintings. After WWI, his interests turned to Boudin and Fantin-Latour and he became an important promoter of the Impressionists, especially in England. In 1927 he opened his own gallery in Paris. He was Raoul Dufy's first dealer and served as an agent for the American collectors Dr. Barnes and Chester Dale. With Gaston and Josse Bernheim-Jeune, Bignou bought the Parisian auction house Galerie Georges Petit and hired Georges Keller to direct it in 1929. Following the closure of the Galerie Georges Petit in 1932, Keller entered into partnership with Bignou and together they ran the Galerie Étienne Bignou, Paris. Keller became director of the New York branch of Bignou Gallery in about 1935. Étienne Bignou died in 1950 and by 1953 Keller had closed Bignou Gallery and was director of Carstairs Gallery, New York
Galerie Bing et Cie, Paris
Founded by Henry Bing, who had been a partner with H. Fiquet of Galerie Fiquet (formerly known as Nunes & Fiquet), the gallery became known as Galerie Bing in 1925 and operated until 1932.
Martin Birnbaum (1878–1970)
Art dealer Birnbaum was manager of the Berlin Photographic Co., New York, 1910–16. Longtime partner in the art firm of Scott & Fowles. Spent later part of his career building the Grenville Lindall Winthrop Collection, now at the Fogg Museum.
Arnold Blanch (1896–1968)
Painter, lithographer, etcher, illustrator, writer, teacher, and lecturer.
Bland Gallery, New York
Operated by Harry MacNeill Bland, the gallery specialized in miniatures.
Irving Blum Gallery, Los Angeles
Previously called the Ferus Gallery. The gallery was founded by Ed Kienholz and Walter Hopps, and was the first to show contemporary West Coast art in the region.
Blumka Gallery, New York
Established in Vienna during the late 19th century and moved to New York during the 1930s. Sculpture and objets d'art. Blumka was involved in the formation and sale of important Viennese collections, including Figdor and Bondy. After World War II, Blumka sold many of the objects restituted to German and Austrian emigrés living in the United States, including Mrs. Bondy.
N. V. Kunsthandel P. de Boer, Amsterdam
Firm founded in 1924 by Pieter de Boer (b. 1894). Specializes in Old Master paintings, especially Dutch and Flemish. Branches in Hamburg, Berlin, Düsseldorf, and Frankfurt.
Kunsthandlung Julius Böhler, Munich
Founded in 1880 in Munich by Julius Böhler and expanded by the next generation, who opened branches in New York, Switzerland, and Berlin [see Böhler and Steinmeyer]. During the 1930s the directorship of the firm was taken over by Julius Harry Böhler, who often traveled to New York with Fritz Steinmeyer. The firm dealt primarily in paintings but also sculpture and drawings from the late Middle Ages through the 18th century. Böhler was closely associated with Kleinberger Galleries, both in Paris and New York. Kleinberger may have taken over Böhler and Steinmeyer in New York during WWII.
Böhler and Steinmeyer, Lucerne and New York
Established in Lucerne 1920, and slightly later in New York, by Julius Böhler and Fritz Steinmeyer, who operated out of Lucerne. Böhler often exported paintings via Switzerland rather than Germany to the United States and elsewhere. In 1954, the firm operated under the name Lucerne Fine Art Company, Ltd. It closed following the death of Julius Wilhelm Böhler in 1966, but the firm continued in a very diminished form under the name Kunsthandel AG through at least the late 1980s.
J. H. de Bois, Haarlem
Beginning in 1878 as a dealer of modern prints, in 1898 he began working with E. J. van Wisselingh, later with C. M. van Gogh, finally establishing himself as an independent dealer.
John Bolles Gallery, San Francisco
Established in 1958 by John Bolles, Chariman of the Board of the San Francisco Art Institute, the gallery specialized in art of the San Francisco Bay Area. Closed in 1975.
Galerie Bonnier, Lausanne and Geneva
Founded 1961 in Lausanne, Switzerland, by Jan Runnqvist, son of Harry Runnqvist (partner in Svensk-Franska), the firm moved to Geneva in 1969. After 1964 Jan Runnqvist ran both Bonnier and Svensk Franska until the death of his father in 1973, when he closed Svensk-Franska and moved all business records to Geneva.
Grace Borgenicht Gallery, New York
Operated by Grace Borgenicht Brandt, formerly co-director of Laurel Gallery, 1946–52, the gallery specialized in 20th-century American paintings and sculpture. Closed 1996.
Boussod, Valadon & Cie, Paris
Founded in 1884 by Léon Boussod (1826–1896) and his son-in-law René Valadon (1848–1921) with the backing of Adolphe Goupil and his son Albert, the firm was the successor to Goupil and known familiarly by that name after Adolphe Goupil's retirement in 1886. Boussod brought his own sons and another son-in-law into the business. After the death of Léon Boussod, Valadon became director. The firm continued the interests and practices of Goupil, dealing in the sale of prints, especially those after popular contemporary Salon artists. The London branch of the firm, known as Goupil Gallery, was directed 1878–96 by David Croal Thomson. The Paris office specialized in the work of the Impressionists, under the influence of Theo van Gogh, who joined the firm in 1878.
Van Bovenkamp Gallery, New York
From 1963–65 the gallery was operated by Hans and Gerrit Van De Bovenkamp. It was later taken over by Sandra Zimmerman.
Bernard Braddon and Sidney Paul Schectman
Operated Mercury Galleries in New York, in existence from 1937 to 1940. Held sixth show of The Ten, called the Whitney Dissenters.
Dewey C. Bradford (b. 1896), Austin, Tex.
Brame et Lorenceau, Paris
Paris art dealers specializing in 19th- and 20th-century paintings, drawings, and sculpture, they were closely associated in their early years with the Manet family.
Grace Borgenicht Brandt, New York
Grace Borgenicht Brandt Gallery, New York
Braunstein/Quay Gallery, San Francisco
Ruth Braunstein founded the 32 Main St. Gallery, Tiburon, Calif., in 1961, changing its name to Quay Gallery the same year. In 1965, it moved to San Francisco. In 1975 Braunstein opened the Quay Ceramics Gallery next door, with her partners Rena Bransten and Sylvia Brown. Also operated under the names Ruth Braunstein's Quay Gallery, Braunstein Gallery, Quay Ceramics Gallery and Braunstein/Quay Gallery in the 1980s.
Buchholz Gallery, New York
Founded by Curt Valentin on W. 46th Street in 1937. Two years later it moved to 57th Street. Between 1934 and 1937, Valentin had run his own gallery in the art department of Buchhandlung Buchholz, Berlin. Buchholz Gallery, New York, was renamed Curt Valentin Gallery in 1951 and operated until Valentin's death in 1955.
Frans Buffa & Zonen, Amsterdam
Art dealer, 1922–40.
Byron Gallery, New York
Established by Charles Byron (b. 1918) gallery; primarily showed Surrealist and up-and-coming contemporary artists, as well as an occasional Old Masters exhibit.
Galerie Cailleux, Paris
Dealer in Old Master and 18th-century paintings and drawings.
California Art Club, Los Angeles
Organized in 1909 from the Painters' Club, became the largest and most influential Los Angeles art organization during the early 20th century. The Club's primary purpose was to hold exhibitions for the sale of members' works.
Robert B. Campbell (1909–74)
Director of Shore Galleries, Boston. Specialized in American paintings.
Candy Store Gallery, Folsom, Calif.
Art gallery, exhibited Robert Arneson, Clayton Bailey, Royd De Forest, David Gilhooly, Irving Marcus, Gladys Nilsson, James Nutt, Maija Woof Peeples, Sandy Shannonhouse, Chris Unterseher, Peter Vandenberge, and others.
Carlen Galleries, Philadelphia
Established in 1937 by dealer and appraiser Robert Carlen (1906–90), the gallery specialized in American folk, primitive, and decorative art. Also sold African, European, and Oriental art. Carlen worked with Alfred Frankenstein on William Harnett, with Mary Black on a variety of projects. He uncovered many paintings by Edward Hicks and was also Horace Pippin's dealer.
Carlin Galleries, Fort Worth, Tex.
Originally named the Gallery of Wonderful Things, 1957–60.
Galerie Louis Carré & Cie, Paris
Modern and contemporary art.
Cassirer Galerie, Berlin, Amsterdam
In 1898 Paul Cassirer (1871–1926) and his cousin Bruno Cassirer (1872–1941) established themselves as publishers and art dealers. In 1901 the cousins separated—Paul continued as an art dealer and Bruno took over as publisher—agreeing not to compete directly for seven years. In 1908, Paul founded Verlag Paul Cassirer. Cassirer was president of the Berlin Secession and in 1913 founded the Freie Sezession. His friendship with Paul Durand-Ruel, whom he met before WWI, involved him in the promotion of the Impressionsists, as well as of Wilhelm Tübner, Max Liebermann, Lovis Corinth, and others. After WWI, he lived in Berne and Zurich. He died in 1926. His gallery and publishing firm continued to operate until 1933. Walter Feilchenfeldt, Sr., and Grete Ring ran his art-dealing businesses in Amsterdam, Zurich, and London. The Berlin gallery closed in 1935 and Paul Cassirer, Amsterdam, continued under the direction of Feilchenfeldt until 1939, when Feilchenfeldt moved to Switzerland and opened a gallery under his own name.
Castano Galleries, Boston
Established in 1931 by Giovanni Castano (aka John Castano). Specializing in European and American paintings. Castano acted as an agent for Wildenstein and Co. and restored paintings.
Leo Castelli Gallery
Contemporary paintings, drawings, and sculpture. Leo Castelli lived and operated a gallery in Paris from 1939 to 1941, when he immigrated to New York. Castelli dealt privately before opening his New York gallery in 1958. [See also Ivan C. Karp]
Challis Galleries, Laguna Beach, Calif.
The gallery was operated by Richard Challis from 1947 to 1980 and showed local and regional artists.
Chapellier Galleries, Brussels, London, and New York
Established in Brussels and London in 1916, and in New York in 1923. Primarily collected important American paintings 1840–1940.
Galerie Charpentier, Paris
Frank Swift Chase (1886–1958)
Landscape painter. Chase lived and worked in Woodstock, N.Y., and Nantucket, Mass., teaching and exhibiting frequently in both places.
John Clancy (d. 1981)
Director, F[rank] K. .M. Rehn, Inc., art gallery, New York.
Clayton-Liberatore Gallery, Bridgehampton, N.Y.
Formerly Leonard Clayton Gallery, New York, founded by Leonard Clayton when he took over the Marie Sterner Gallery. Later he established the Clayton-Liberatore Gallery with his niece Mary C. Liberatore.
Dealers of paintings and decorative arts, 1866–2010.
Sylvan Cole (b. 1918)
New York art dealer and writer. Began working for Associated American Artists in 1946.
P. & D. Colnaghi, London and New York
Established in 1760 by Paul Colnaghi. Dealer in Old Master and English paintings and drawings; played an important role in the formation of many of the major collections in the United States at the end of the 19th century. Otto Gutekunst, who joined the firm at that time, worked with Bernard Berenson to guide Isabella Stewart Gardner, among others. Colnaghi formed a syndicate in 1930 to purchase many of the masterpieces sold by the Soviet government.
Connoisseur, Inc., New York
Established in 1935 by Ruth Teschner Constantino. The gallery was a continuation uptown of Teschner Gallery, which she had opened in 1912. Connoisseur dealt in painting, sculpture, antique furniture, etc. It closed in 1981 after the death of Mrs. Constantino.
Ruth Teschner Constantino (1892–1981)
Art dealer; opened the Ruth Teschner Gallery in 1912. In 1935 she established another gallery, Connoisseur Inc., which closed after her death. A dealer in painting, sculpture, and antiques, she advised such collectors as Walter C. Baker, Stavros Niarchos, Henry Ford, Robert Lehman, and Ailsa Mellon Bruce.
Sandrini Contini-Bonacosi (1878–1955)
Dealer/collector. Established as a dealer in Rome c. 1919; c. 1931–33 he moved to Florence, where he lived in the villa Pratello Orsini. He was closely involved with the formation of the collections of Felix Warburg and Samuel Kress between 1930 and 1955. His own private collection was given to the Uffizi in 1969.
Douglas Cooper (1911–85)
British, art critic, curator, and collector, notably of early Cubist paintings; curator of Mayor Gallery, London, c. 1933–38.
William Nelson Copley (1919–96)
Owner of the Copley Galleries, Beverly Hills, which operated 1948-49, exhibiting work of the Surrealists.
Copley Gallery, Boston
Operated by Frank W. Bayley. Exhibited work of early American artists John Singleton Copley, Charles Wilson Peale, Gilbert Stuart, and others.
Covo de Iongh Gallery, Houston
Established in 1975 by Patricia Covo Johnson, the gallery represented contemporary American artists.
G. Cramer, Oude Kunst Gallery, The Hague
Old Master paintings. Established in Berlin in 1889, the directorship was taken over by Gustav Cramer, the son of the founder, in 1914 and run by him until 1935. Because he was married to a Jew, Gustav was forced by Nazi race laws to cede legal ownership of the gallery to his son Hans. The Cramers moved to The Hague in 1938 to escape persecution by the Nazis. Records include correspondence with major collectors in the United States and Europe, including Germans during WWII. Hans Cramer was a major figure in the Dutch art trade until the end of the century.
Art historian, specializing in contemporary American art. He was an expert on Mark Tobey.
David Gallery, Houston
Established by Dianne David. Artists include: William C. Agee, Jack Boynton, Bob Camblin, Roy Fridge, James Kearns, Seymour Leichman, Jim Love, David McManaway, Robert Morris, Futzie Nutzle, Peter Paone, Mike Selig, and Don Shaw.
Delahunty Gallery, Dallas
Preceded by Smither Gallery and Cranfill Gallery.
Galerie Van Diemen, Berlin, Düsseldorf, Amsterdam, New York
Dr. Eduard Plietzsch (1886–1961) and Kurt Benedikt, were co-directors of the Berlin gallery, establishing a branch in the Hague in about 1920 and Amsterdam and New York about 10 years later. The Berlin gallery was liquidated through two sales held by Graupe on Jan. 25 and April 26, 1935. At about that time the gallery became associated with Lilienfeld Galleries [Dr. Karl Lilienfeld (b. 1885)], New York, being known from the mid-1930s to the early '60s as Van Diemen-Lilienfeld Gallery. Kurt Benedikt was associated with Van Diemen-Margraf, Paris and Berlin, c. 1930.
Dieterle family, Paris
Dealers who built a business around their Corot expertise.
Dilexi Gallery, San Francisco and Los Angeles
Established in San Francisco in 1958. In 1962 James Newman and Rolf Nelson opened a branch of the gallery in Los Angeles. The gallery in Los Angeles closed within a year and the gallery in San Francisco closed in 1970.
Terry Dintenfass (b. 1920)
New York art dealer specializing in American art, early 20th century.
Doll & Richards, Boston
Established in 1866 as Hendrickson, Doll & Richards, under which name it operated until Hendrickson's retirement in 1870. Incorporated in 1902, the gallery maintained the name Doll & Richards until the death of J. Dudley Richards in 1922. Arthur McKean purchased the gallery in 1941 and sold it to Maurice Goldberg in 1962. In 1973 the gallery was sold to Jeanne and Paul Sylva. Specialized in American painting.
Robert Langton Douglas
English scholar/dealer; affiliated with Duveen. His widow, Jean, later married Edward Fowles, last owner/director of Duveen's.
Douwes, Amsterdam and London
Gallery specializing in Old Master paintings and drawings.
Downtown Gallery, New York
Established in 1926 by Edith Gregor Halpert and Berthe Kroll Goldsmith as Our Gallery; name changed to Downtown Gallery in 1927. Specialized in contemporary American art and folk art. In 1930 and 1931, respectively, Daylight Gallery and American Folk Art Gallery opened as subsidiaries of the Downtown Gallery. In 1935 Halpert became the sole proprietor of the business, which she operated until her death in 1970. Following her death, her niece Nathaly Baum operated the gallery until it closed in 1973.
Margaret Webb Dreyer (1911–76)
Painter and art dealer; Houston
Nancy Drysdale Gallery, Washington, D.C.
When Max Protech moved to New York in 1976, his gallery at 2151 P St., Washington, D.C., became the Protech-McIntosh Gallery under his successor, Cincinnati dealer, Nancy McIntosh Drysdale. She then moved the gallery to 406 7th St., and changed the name to the McIntosh/Drysdale Gallery. Several years later, Drysdale vacated the 7th Street address and operated as a private dealer. The Nancy Drysdale Gallery at 2103 O St. N.W. opened in 1991.
Dubose Gallery, Houston
Formerly known as the James Bute Gallery.
Jean Dubuffet (1901–85)
French painter, lithographer, sculptor, architect, and author.
Duits Ltd., London
Art gallery dealing in Old Master paintings. Established in 1836 as a general dealer in art and antiques in Dordrecht, the firm moved to Amsterdam in 1875. In 1920 Charles Duits opened a gallery in London; he was joined by his brother William Henry, his son Clifford, and grandson Graham. The London gallery, often in association with the Amsterdam gallery, concentrated on the sale of works by the Old Masters, especially Dutch and Flemish painters. The Amsterdam gallery closed in 1938; the London gallery in 1985.
French family of dealers. Paul Durand-Ruel (1831–1922) was one of the most influential forces behind the promotion and sale of 19th-century French painting, especially the Barbizon and Impressionist painters, for which he developed a market among wealthy American collectors. Gallery closed in 1974 but research in the archives continues.
Durlacher Brothers, London
Durlacher Brothers was founded in 1843 by Henry and George Durlacher. The New York branch opened in the early 1920s and was managed by R. Kirk Askew. Askew purchased Durlacher Brothers in 1937; a year later the eldest surviving original partner retired. Askew ran the business from New York until c. 1969.
Duveen Brothers, London, Paris, New York
Founded by Henry Duveen (1854–1919) and his brother Sir Joseph Duveen (1869–1939; president 1901–39), and assisted by art experts, most notably Bernard Berenson (1865–1959). Joseph Duveen was instrumental in the formation of the late 19th- to early 20th-century collections that became the core of the Frick Collection, the Huntington Art Collections, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the National Gallery of Art. In 1964, Edward Fowles, the last president of Duveen Brothers, sold the business to Los Angeles businessman and collector, Norton Simon. Simon bought the 79th Street mansion and all the remaining stock. Edward Fowles left the firm's records and papers to MMA/EP but restricted access for 20 years. Subsequently given by MMA/EP to the GRI, which is preparing microfilm copies of the records, a copy of which will be sent to MMA.
Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles and New York
Owned and operated by Virginia Dwan. Major gallery and leading force of the 1960s. The gallery commissioned and exhibited many post-minimalist, earthwork, and conceptual artists, including Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer, and Dennis Oppenheim.
East Side Gallery, New York
Established by Mark Freeman.
Galerie de l'Effort Moderne, Paris
Opened in 1918 by Léonce Rosenberg with an ambitious series of exhibitions demonstrating the modern style. Between 1924 and 1927 Rosenberg published 40 issues of the Bulletin de l'Effort Moderne. [See also Léonce Rosenberg]
Everett Ellin Gallery, Los Angeles
Owned by Everett Ellin. Represented sculptor David Smith in California.
André Emmerich Gallery, New York/Galerie André Emmerich, Zurich
Modern and pre-Columbian art.
Galeria Escondida, Taos, N.Mex.
Established by Eulalia Emetaz, the gallery operated from 1946 to 1960 on Ledoux Street on the historic plaza. One of the first postwar galleries outside New York to feature modernist art.
De la Faille
Van Gogh scholar.
Linda Farris Gallery, Seattle
Established in 1970 in Bellevue, Wash., the gallery moved the following year to Seattle; it closed in December 1995. Considered Seattle's avant-garde gallery, it represented, among others, Jeffrey Bishop, Dennis Evans, Sherry Markowitz, Nancy Mee, Norie Sato, and Patti Warashina.
Margo Feiden Galleries, New York
Represented graphic artists and caricaturist Al Hirschfeld.
Walter Feilchenfeldt, Zurich
Scholar and dealer of 19th- and 20th-century drawings and paintings. Walter Fielchenfeldt, Sr., was a scholar of Cezanne. He worked with Cassirer from c. 1919 until the latter's death in 1926. Feilchenfeldt ran Paul Cassirer, Berlin, until 1935 and Paul Cassirer, Amsterdam, until 1939. After 1946 he established a gallery in Zurich under his own name.
Lyonel Feininger (1871–1956)
American painter, printmaker, illustrator, particularly of landscapes, he spent his early career in Europe, where he was associated with the Bauhaus. In 1925 he formed the Blue Four with Alexi Jawlenski, Paul Klee, and Vasily Kandinsky. In 1937 Feininger returned to the United States and taught at Mills College and late in his career joined former Bauhaus colleague Josef Albers at Black Mountain College.
Fendrick Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Owned by Barbara Fendrick.
Ferargil Galleries, New York
Established by Frederic Newlin Price in 1915. Closed in 1955. The gallery dealt primarily in America art.
Fifth Avenue Gallery, Fort Worth, Tex.
Established in 1960 by Pauline Evans and Bror Utter, it was the first Fort Worth gallery to represent primarily local artists. Closed in 1966.
Fischbach Gallery, New York
Operated by Aladar Marberger, the gallery was established c. 1954. During the 1960s, it specialized in minimalist painters, refocusing on painterly realists during the 1970s.
Fitzgerald Gallery, New York
Owned by Edward Fitzgerald, from 1960 to 1965 the gallery was located at 19 E. 7th St. In December 1965 it moved to Madison Avenue.
Galerie Flechtheim, Berlin
Originally established in Dusseldorf in 1913 by Alfred Flechtheim, the gallery eventually had galleries in Berlin, Cologne, and Frankfurt. Flechtheim Gallery represented German artists, including George Grosz, but specialized in paintings by contemporary French painters. Curt Valentin worked for Flechtheim in Berlin after 1927, organizing exhibitions and co-editing the gallery's magazine, Omnibus. [See also Alfred Flechtheim; Curt Valentin]
Alfred Flechtheim, Berlin, Düsseldorf, Cologne, and Frankfurt
Dealer of modern French art. Flectheim closed his galleries in Düsseldorf and Berlin in November 1933 and moved first to Paris and then to London, where he died in 1937. Flechtheim was closely associated with Kahnweiler and the Mayor Gallery and apparently sent much of the stock from his gallery and many items from his important personal collection either to the Mayor Gallery in London or to Kahnweiler's Galerie Simon in Paris. At his death, Flechtheim left his gallery records and personal library (now destroyed) with Fred Mayor, founder of Mayor Gallery.
Art dealer specializing in works by the Dadaists.
Focus Gallery, San Francisco
Established in 1966 by Helen Johnston, the gallery was located on Union Street and exhibited American and international photographers. The gallery closed in 1985.
Forum Gallery, New York
Art gallery, directed by Bella Fishko (d. 1995) and, after her death, by her son, Robert Fishko. Specialized in 20th-century American painting and sculpture.
Edward Fowles (1885?–1971)
Fowles directed the Paris branch of Duveen Brothers from 1917 to 1938, then purchased the firm in 1939. In 1964, he sold the firm to the Norton Simon Foundation. His widow, Jean Fowles (widow of Robert Langton Douglas), gave the files of Duveen Brothers to MMA/EP. The files are now at GRI.
Emily A. Francis (1879–1966)
Founder and director of Contemporary Arts, New York.
Galerie Günther Franke, Munich
Franke (1900–76) worked with I. B. Neumann in Berlin 1918–23. In 1923 Neumann opened the Munich branch of his gallery and left for New York, leaving Franke in charge of the Munich gallery and Karl Nierendorf in charge of the Berlin gallery. The Munich gallery operated under the name of Neumann and Franke until c. 1937, when it became known as the Galerie Günther Franke. Franke specialized in the German Expressionists, hiding their works during the Nazi era.
French and Co., New York
New York art gallery specializing in the decorative arts; founded in 1907 by Mitchell Samuels. Chief purchaser for William Randolph Hearst and J. Paul Getty., and agents for the Huntingtons, Fricks, Mellons, and Astors. Following the death of Mitchell Samuels in 1959, his son, Spencer Samuels, sold the company to City Investing, which sold the firm to Martin Zimet in 1968. The bulk of the firm's paper records were lost in a flood.
Rose Fried Gallery, New York
Established as the Pinacotheca Gallery in the 1940s by Rose Fried, the gallery was instrumental in introducing many abstract painters, including Mondrian and Kandinsky.
Max Jacob Friedländer
German art historian and museum director, who immigrated to Amsterdam in 1939. A specialist in early Netherlandish and German art, he was often called upon by collectors, dealers, and museum personnel to give his opinion on works of art.
Bordeaux art collector who bought Gauguin's work from Vollard at the turn of the century. Frizeau was a passionate collector of paintings by Redon. He rarely left Bordeaux and depended on Paris agents; the painter, illustrator, and critic André Lhote; and the writer Ary Leblond (pseudonym of Aimé Merlo).
Diana Fuller Galleries, San Francisco
Diana Fuller operated the Fuller Goldeen Gallery (previously known as the Fuller Gross Gallery), the Hansen-Fuller Gallery, and the Hansen Fuller Goldeen Gallery.
Dr. Paul-Ferdinand Gachet (1828–1909), Paris
Medical doctor, collector/patron of Cezanne, Pissarro, van Gogh, and others.
Gallery 1015, Wyncotte, Pa.
Established in 1958 by Gladys Myers, who ran it from her home. Closed in 1967.
Gallery Wall, Scottsdale, Ariz., and Santa Fe, N.Mex.
Represented only the artists Allan Houser and Dan Namingha.
Paul Ganz, New York
Curator at the Metropolitan Museum, who worked with Federico Zeri on the Italian catalogues, focusing on provenance. Her ex-collection card files for works in the department, compiled between 1943 and 1985, contain a wealth of information on dealers and private collectors, with associated sales and bibliography. Available for consultation by appointment. Photocopies of the file are in GRI/PI.
Lee Gatch (1902–68)
Painter, New York.
Leonid (1883–1941) and Ethel Gechtoff
Leonid Gechtoff, a Russian landscape painter, emigrated to the United States. in 1922, settling in Philadelphia, where he remained until his death in 1941. His wife Ethel Gechtoff ran East & West Gallery in San Francisco, 1956–58.
J.[an] G.[errit] van Gelder (1903–80)
Dutch art historian, connoisseur, director of the RKD; director of the Gemeentemuseum, the Hague; and professor of art history at the Rijksuniversiteit, Utrecht. Van Gelder concentrated on Dutch and Flemish art.
Otto (1902–62) and Ilse Gerson
Otto Gerson and Ilse Goehler (m. 1939), New York art dealers, c. 1940–62, owned and operated Fine Arts Associates, Gerson Gallery, and the Marlborough-Gerson Gallery.
Joseph Gillott (1799–1872), London
Collector Joseph Gillott was closely associated with the dealer Ernest Gambart and his activities; had a considerable influence on the formation of the international commercial art market and exhibition system.
Margaret Beard Gilpin
Descendant of Harington Beard, a native of England, who opened the Harington Beard Fine Art Shop in Minneapolis in 1886. The gallery, later known as the Beard Art Galleries, operated until Beard's death in 1940. Richard Beard Thompson reopened the gallery c. 1980.
Gimbel Brothers, New York
New York department store chain. The firm also owned Saks. Both Saks and Gimbels were venues for the 1941 sale of part of William Randolph Hearst's collection (International Studio Art Corporation) organized by Hammer Galleries, New York. [See also Hearst]
Gimpel Fils, London
Opened after WWII by the sons of René Gimpel, a Paris dealer, who had been affiliated with Wildenstein in New York and Paris. Specializes in contemporary American and European art.
Sara Gottlieb (1913–81)
Art dealer; New York. Married to artist Harry Gottlieb.
Firm established in Amsterdam in 1919 by Jacques Goudstikker, who fled to England in 1940, dying en route. The firm was left in the hands of his employees and bought by Alois Miedl, a German who ran it during WWII.
Goupil et Cie, Paris, London, Berlin, New York, the Hague, Vienna, Brussels
Publishing firm founded in 1827 by Henri Rittner and Adolf Goupil in Paris. After Rittner's death in 1841, Goupil established a new partnership with Théodore Vibert. The firm opened branches in London in 1841 and New York in 1845, supported American artists in Paris and contemporary French painters in America. The New York branch was sold to Michel Knoedler in 1857. In 1861 Goupil and Léon Boussod entered into partnership with Vincent van Gogh (uncle of the artist) in Paris. By the end of the 19th century Goupil also had established branches of the firm in Berlin, the Hague, Vienna, and Brussels, specializng in the work of 19th-century artists The firm was succeeded by Boussod Valadon & Co. in 1879. Theo van Gogh, ran the London gallery, also owned by Boussod, Valadon, called the Goupil Gallery. The firm closed in 1920.
Graham Gallery, Houston
Established in 1981 by William A. Graham.
Grand Central Art Galleries, New York
Established in 1923, with modern division called Grand Central Moderns
In operation 1926–28 by Katie Granoff, in association with René Lefebure, closed. Reestablished as Galerie Katie Granoff, continued by Larock Granoff.
Grapestake Gallery, San Francisco
Established in 1974 by Ursula Gropper, Thomas V. Meyer, and their father, Otto Meyer. Exhibited primarily contemporary California painters, sculptors and 20th-century American photographers. Gallery closed in 1984.
G.R.D. Gallery, New York
Nonprofit art gallery; founded by Jean S. Roosevelt in honor of her sister, artist Gladys Roosevelt Dick. Kimon Nicolaides was art director.
Gropper Art Gallery (aka Gropper Art Galleries), Cambridge, Mass.
Established in 1954, the gallery specialized in prints.
Gross McCleaf Gallery, Philadelphia
Established in 1969 as the Marlin McCleaf Gallery, specializing in 20th-century paintings and works on paper. After Marlin McCleaf left in December 1969, Estelle Gross became the sole proprietor, incorporating the gallery as the Gross McCleaf Gallery.
Daniel B. Grossman Gallery
Willem (Jr.) and Gerrit Gruyter, Utrecht
Dealers in Utrecht, 1832–75. [See also Willem Gruyter, Sr., and Jr., Amsterdam]
Willem Gruyter, Sr., and Jr., Amsterdam
Peggy Guggenheim (b. 1898)
Collector, patron, art dealer. Her galleries were Guggenheim Jeune, London (1938), and Art of this Century, New York (1942–1947).
Guild Art Gallery, New York
Established c. 1935 by Anna Walinska and Margaret Schoonover; closed in 1939.
Gump's Gallery, San Francisco
Established in 1861, the gallery [aka S. & G. Gump Company] has been operated by the Gump family through three generations. Gump's hosted a broad range of exhibitions, including Hudson River School paintings, Near Eastern bronzes, Fauvist painting, American folk art, and contemporary American printmakers.
Hackett Galleries, New York
Located at 9 E. 57th St.
Nathan Halper (1907–83)
In partnership with Samuel Kootz, Halper managed the Samuel Kootz Gallery in Provincetown, Mass. (1953–54). With John Murray Cuddihy, he formed the H. C. Gallery (1956) and H.C.E. Gallery (1957–67). He also managed the Sun Gallery for a few years .
Helen Marjorie Windust Halper (b. 1908)
Painter; Provincetown, Mass. Wife of art dealer Nathan Halper.
Patricia Hamilton Gallery, New York
Specializing in sculpture, the gallery operated from 1977 to 1985.
Hammer Gallery, New York
Founded in 1928 by Dr. Armand Hammer; originally specialized in Russian icons, brocades, imperial porcelains, and art objects. Introduced the work of Karl Fabergé to America. During the 1930s Hammer Gallery was responsible for liquidating much of the vast collection of William Randolph Hearst. In the 1960s the gallery began to focus on Impressionist and Post -Impressionist works.
John Hanna Galleries, Detroit
Three generations of the Hanna family owned, wholly or in part, several galleries in Detroit: Detroit Art Store, Hanna-Thomson Galleries, John E. Hanna & Bros., John Hanna Company Galleries, John Hanna, Inc.
Marie Harriman Gallery, New York
Operated by Marie Harriman (wife of Averell Harriman) from 1930–42.
Huize Van Hasselt, Rotterdam
William Randolph Hearst (International Studio Corporation)
In about 1930 Hearst Publications faced bankruptcy, and William Randolph Hearst was forced to sell off assets, including a large part of his massive collection of European art. The collection was sold by Hammer Gallery through Gimbel Brothers Department Store. The better works were sold at Saks Fifth Avenue.
Heim Gallery, London
Opened in 1965 by François Heim, of the Galerie Heim in Paris, with Andrew S. Ciechanowiecki as partner and director. Specialized in Baroque, Renaissance and19th-century French sculpture, Italian painting, French and neoclassical drawings.
Henri Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Established in Alexandria, Va., in 1957 by Henrietta Ehrsam (d. 1996); moved to Washington, D.C., c. 1967. Specialized in the work of the Washington Color School.
David Herbert (1920–95)
Herbert worked for a number of important contemporary galleries in New York, namely the Betty Parsons Gallery (1951–53), Sidney Janis Gallery (1953–59), and the Graham Gallery (1969–75). He also had his own eponymous gallery (1959–62), was a private dealer (1964–69; 1975–95), and was in partnership with dealer Richard Feigen (1962–64).
Terese Tarlton Hershey
Hershey founded Gallery of Wonderful Things, Fort Worth, Tex., in 1956 and turned it over to Electra Carlin in 1958. Carlin moved the gallery and changed the name to Carlin Gallery. Hershey moved to Houston and organized four art shows at the Tall Timbers apartment complex owned by her husband.
Hirschl & Adler Galleries
The gallery specializes in 18th- to 20th-century American paintings, sculpture, and prints as well as European paintings. Hirschl & Adler Modern was established to sell contemporary American and European paintings, sculpture and photography.
Cornelis Hofstede de Groot
Art historian specializing in Dutch 17th-century. His Catalouge Raisonné of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters remains a standard reference.
B. C. Holland Gallery, Chicago
Established in 1959 by Bud C. Holland and Noah Goldowsky as the Holland-Goldowsky Gallery, it featured Chicago artists and some artists of the New York School as well as modern furniture, 1890–1950. In 1961, Holland bought out Goldowsky and renamed the gallery the B. C. Holland Gallery. It closed in 1991 following the death of Bud Holland.
Louis A. Holman (1866–1939)
Illustrator, art editor, and print dealer; Boston. Holman established a print department at Goodspeed's Book Shop in 1915, leaving in 1930 to open his own firm, Holman's Print Shop. Richard Bourne Holman worked with his father and ran the firm after Louis' death in 1939 until 1977.
Jurgen Holstein Antiquariat, Berlin
Berlin manuscript dealer specializing in the German avant-garde.
Hooks-Epstein Galleries, Houston
Nineteenth- and 20th-century representational American, European, and Latin American art.
Kunsthandel Huinck & Scherjon, Amsterdam
W. C. A. Huinck (1881–1961) took over the Utrecht gallery of his father, A. J. Huinck (1847–?) in 1903 and established Kunsthandel Huinck & Scherjon in Amsterdam in 1930. W. Scherjon (1878–1938) had been a printer and publisher in Utrecht. Specialized in The Hague School and Amsterdam School, French Impressionism, and Barbizon. Closed 1955.
Hundred Acres Gallery, New York
Owned and operated by Ivan Karp.
J. L. Hudson Gallery, Detroit
Joseph L. Hudson established J. L. Hudson Gallery in 1963. To direct the gallery, Hudson hired Albert Landry, who had owned a gallery in New York. Located in the downtown branch of Hudson's Department Store, the gallery opened with an exhibition of the W. R. Valentiner Collection. Oscar Piagentini succeeded Landry as directory in 1967. Closed c. 1974.
Martha Jackson Gallery, New York
Specialized in modern America and European painting and sculpture. David Anderson, Martha Jackson's son, assumed control of the gallery after her death in 1969.
Lotte Jacobi Place, Hillsboro, N.H.
Lotte Jacobi (d. 1990) was a portrait photographer in Berlin between 1927 and 1935. After fleeing Nazi Germany in 1935, she opened a studio in New York. She later moved to Deering, N.H., and established Lotte Jacobi Place to show the work of contemporary artists.
Sidney Janis, New York
Sidney Janis began collecting paintings in 1926 and opened his gallery in New York in 1949 with an exhibition of works by Léger, whom he had known in Paris. The gallery is closed.
Jefferson Place Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Established 1957, closed 1974; the gallery exhibited local artists.
Jehu Gallery, San Francisco
Operated from 1978 to 1981, specializing in contemporary art.
Daniel Kahnweiler, Paris
German art dealer, publisher, writer, who established a gallery in Paris in 1907 and became one of the most influential dealers of the Paris School, particularly Picasso and Braque. Exiled in Switzerland during World War I, his collections were sequestered and sold by the French government at the end of the war. Returning to Paris in 1920, Kahnweiler reopened his gallery, known as Galerie Simon after his partner André Simon. In 1940 Simon, a Jew, turned his gallery over to his daughter-in-law Louise Leiris, who ran the gallery as Galerie Louise Leiris.
Art dealer, owner/director of Galerie St. ètienne, New York.
Kanst Art Gallery, Los Angeles
Operated b J.F. Kanst.
Tirca Karlis Gallery, Provincetown, Mass.
Established in the 1920s by Tirca Karlis Cohen. At her death the gallery passed to her son and heir, Aaron Cohen.
Gertrude Kasle Gallery, Detroit
Established in 1960 and closed in 1976, when Kasle and Joy Colby established Kasle/Colby Art Consultants.
Georges Keller was hired in 1929 by the French dealers Étienne Bignou and Gaston and Josse Bernheim-Jeune to be director of the Parisian auction house, Galerie Georges Petit, which they had recently acquired. Following the closure of the Galerie Georges Petit in 1933, Keller became the director of the New York branch of Bignou Gallery. By 1953 Keller had closed Bignou Gallery and was director of Carstairs Gallery, New York. [See Bignou and Galerie Georges Petit]
Mitchell Kennerly [aka Kennerley] (1878–1950)
Publisher of The Forum, 1910–1916 and president of the Anderson Galleries, New York, 1916–29.
Frederick Keppel and Co. (aka Keppel's Print Shop)
The gallery was founded by Frederick Keppel (1845–1912). William Macbeth (1851–1917), who later founded the well-known Macbeth Gallery in New York City, was his assistant c. 1875. [See Margaret Beard Gilpin]
Coe-Kerr Gallery, New York
Founded in 1968 by Elmer Coe Kerr in partnership with the collector Fred Woolworth. Coe Kerr, as he was known, had been a senior partner of Knoedlers and was related to the Knoedler family. The Coe Kerr gallery originally represented Andrew Wyeth, but broadened its scope to include 19th- and 20th-century American paintings, under the influence of Warren Adelson, who served as director from 1974 to 1990. Closed in 1993.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
German Expressionist artist active in Dresden and Switzerland. Member of die Brücke.
Kleijkamp (aka Kleykamp), the Hague
Art dealers, 1904–32.
Kleinberger Galleries, Paris and New York
Founded in Paris by Franz Kleinberger in 1848, the firm was an early promoter and importer of European paintings to the United States. By 1913 Kleinberger was exhibiting at its gallery on lower Fifth Avenue, near the Duveen Gallery. Harry S. Sperling (d. 1973) was vice president of the firm, and after the death of Kleinberger (c. 1936) served as president until 1973. Kleinberger's was closely associated with Julius Böhler before and after World War II [see Böhler Steinmeyer]. Kleinberger also seems to have been closely associated with Duveen. Kleinberger's correspondence files (unrelated to Duveen) were among the papers from Duveen given to the Metropolitan Museum and now at the GRI.
M. Knoedler & Co., New York
Established in 1857 when Michael [aka Michel] Knoedler purchased the New York branch of Goupil, with which he had worked since emigrating from Paris in 1846. By 1889 the firm was known simply as Knoedler's. Roland Knoedler, Michael's son, took over the firm after the death of his father in 1878 and with Charles Carstairs opened galleries in Paris and London. Roland Knoedler retired in 1928 and management of the firm passed to his nephew Charles Henschel, Carmen Mesmore, and Charles Carstairs and his son Carroll. In 1956 Henschel died and E. Coe Kerr and Roland Balay (Michael Knoedler's grandson) took over. In 1971 the firm was sold to industrialist and collector Armand Hammer. The firm closed in 2011. The archives were acquired by the Getty Research Institute in 2012.
David Koetser Gallery, London and Zurich
Dealers—uncle and nephew by the same name. Gallery originally established in London. The elder David Koetser moved to Zurich in 1970s in semi-retirement and subsequently died. He left his collection to the Kunsthalle, Zürich. Nephew David Koetser continues to operate the firm in Zurich.
Kootz Gallery, New York
Founded in 1945 by Samuel M. Kootz (1898–1982), the gallery specialized in modern art. Managed by Nathan Halper (1953–54), it closed in 1966.
B. R. Kornblatt Gallery, Baltimore and Washington, D.C.
Established in 1975 by Barbara Kornblatt in Baltimore, the gallery moved in 1980 to Washington, D.C. It specialized in contemporary American painting, sculpture, and works on paper. Closed 1991.
Kraushaar Galleries, New York
Specializing in 20th-century American paintings and sculpture, the gallery was owned by Antoinette M. Kraushaar.
Katherine Kuh (1904–94)
Art consultant, gallery owner, curator, and critic, Chicago and New York.
Lucien (1880–1943) and Marcelle Labaudt
Lucien Labaudt was a painter, muralist, costume, and set designer. He also ran the California School of Design. After his death in 1943, his wife, Marcelle Labaudt, established the Lucien Labaudt Art Gallery in San Francisco to give younger or relatively unknown artists their first exhibition. Gallery closed in 1980.
Siegfried and Walter Laemmle, Munich and Los Angeles
Prominent dealers of medieval and Renaissance sculpture, the firm was located first on Karlstrasse, later on Lenbachplatz and Briennerstrasse, Munich. Siegfried Laemmle relocated to Los Angeles in 1938 after the Germans confiscated the Munich shop and its contents. Walter Laemmle joined his father as a partner in the Los Angeles firm.
Laurel Gallery, New York
Established in 1946 at 108 E. 57th St., the gallery specialized in contemporary American art. Co-directors were Chris Ritter and Grace Borgenicht.
Eva Lee Gallery, Great Neck, N.Y.
Owned by Eva Lee.
Louise Leiris, Paris
Louise Leiris was Kahnweiler's daughter-in-law, to whom he assigned his gallery in 1940 when he went into exile.
French art critic and dealer, Level was an important collector and early supporter of Matisse and Picasso. For 10 years, Level advised 13 men in the formation of a collection of contemporary art called La Peau de l'Ours. The auction of his collection in March 1914 was a major public event and a financial success.
John Levy Galleries, New York
Located at 559 Fifth Ave. from 1920 to 1927 and at 1 E. 57th St. from 1930–38.
Raymond E. Lewis
Art dealer (San Rafael, Calif.); founded R. E. Lewis Gallery in 1952. Specializes in prints.
André Lhote (1885–1962)
Painter, illustrator, and critic.
Carel van Lier (1898-1945), Amsterdam
Lilienfeld Galleries, New York
Originally established in Germany by Dr. Karl Lilienfeld (b. 1885); in New York by the mid-1930s, when it joined Van Diemen to become Van Diemen-Lilienfeld Galleries
Little Gallery, Birmingham, Mich.
Established in 1950 by Marguerite (Peggy) deSalle to feature contemporary art by young artists, the gallery later offered picture framing, contemporary jewelry, and pottery.
Little Studio, Ltd., New York
Founded by Richard Kollmar as a place for young artists. Lee Nordness was director.
Locks Gallery, Philadelphia
Established 1968 as the Marian Locks Gallery, it became known as Locks Gallery c. 1990. The gallery exhibited primarily the work of contemporary Philadelphia area artists.
Adolph [aka Adolfo] Loewi, Venice, New York, and Los Angeles
Firm originally established in Venice by Adolph Loewi with a branch in New York. In 1939 when Loewi left Italy, he turned the firm over to Alessandro Morandotti, who took the stock to Rome, where he established the firm as Antiquaria in Palazzo Massimo. Loewi moved first to New York and within six months to Los Angeles. After the war, Morandotti returned the firm to Loewi, who stayed in Los Angeles. Morandotti continued to run the gallery in Rome, purchasing it from Loewi in 1950. The firm sold decorative arts, sculpture, paintings, and especially textiles. The textile business eventually split off as Loewi-Robertson under the direction of his daughter, Kay Robertson, and her husband.
Meredith Long & Company, Houston and New York
Owned and directed by Meredith Long. Businesses included Davis and Long, 746 Madison Ave., New York; Meredith Long Contemporary, 7 W. 57th St., New York; and Meredith Long and Company, 2323 San Felipe, Houston. The gallery specialized in 19th- and 20th-century American art.
Long Point Gallery, Provincetown, Mass.
Cooperative art gallery; Provincetown, Mass. Founded in 1977. Closed in 1998.
Neil Lovisco (1900–81)
In the 1920s, Lovisco ran The Catacombs, a combination art gallery-tea room in New York's Greenwich Village. He later operated the Bearskin Neck Art Gallery, Rockport, Mass. (1946–49), Art Center Gallery, New York (1950s), and the Lovisco Gallery, New York (1957–73) and Gloucester, Mass. (1973–79).
Lust studied at the Art Students' League, 1936–41. She opened the Norlyst Gallery at 59 W. 56th Street, New York, in partnership with Jimmy Ernst in March 1943. Ernst left the business after several years; Lust ran the Norlyst Gallery until 1949. She later opened the Norlist Art Studio in Mount Holly, N.J.
Macbeth Gallery, New York
Founded in New York 1892 by William Macbeth, it was the first gallery to deal solely in American art. The gallery's most famous exhibition was that of The Eight in 1908. William's son, Robert Macbeth, joined the firm in 1909 and became president in 1917. Robert McIntyre, nephew of William Macbeth, joined the firm in 1903 and became president of the gallery in 1940. Closed 1953.
Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne
Art gallery in Cologne dealing in contemporary art, especially Conceptionalism, the Trans-Avant Garde, and German Neo-Expressionism. Opened 1970; closed 1990.
Makler Gallery, Philadelphia
Established in 1960 by Dr. Paul Todd Makler and his wife, Hope, the gallery exhibited primarily pre-1960 paintings and contemporary sculpture.
Gracie Mansion Gallery, New York
Established in 1982 and closed in 1991, the gallery was operated by painter and dealer Gracie Mansion, aka Joanne Mayhew Young. Specializing in large group exhibitions and theme shows, as well as small, affordable art.
Simon Maris & family
Dutch family of painters active in the Hague. Jacob Maris was a leading figure of The Hague School.
Galerie Markant, Langelo [Norg, Drente]
Owned by Hans van der Mark.
Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York
Established 1931 by Pierre Matisse, son of Henri Matisse, the gallery specialized in 20th-century European art.
Mayor Gallery, London
Founded by Fred Mayor, the gallery specialized in 20th-century British, European, and American paintings, drawings, and sculpture. Douglas Cooper was curator between 1933 and 1938. The gallery was closely associated with Flechtheim, who left his collection of records and personal library to Mayor. [See Flechtheim]
Maxwell Galleries, San Francisco
Established in 1940, specialized in 19th- and 20th-century American and European paintings, including early California art.
Art dealer; San Francisco. Operated Courvoisier Galleries.
Louis K. Meisel Gallery, New York
Mercury Galleries, New York
Located at 4 E. 8th St., Mercury Galleries existed from 1937 to 1940. It was operated by Bernard Braddon and Sidney Paul Schectman. The gallery held the sixth show of the group The Ten, aka the Whitney Dissenters.
French art dealers. Paul-Louis Mergier and his wife Madame Mergier-Bourdeix.
W. J. G. van Meurs
Midtown Galleries, New York
Founded in 1932 by Alan D. Gruskin and Francis C. Healey, Midtown Galleries specialized in contemporary American art. In 1985 John Whitney Payson bought the gallery and in 1990 changed the name to Midtown-Payson Galleries; it closed in 1995.
Milch Gallery, New York
Founded in 1912 by Edward Milch (1865–1954). In 1916 Edward established a partnership with his brother Albert (1881–1951), which was incorporated as E. & A. Milch and soon became Milch Galleries. Initially a print and framing business, by the 1920s the focus had shifted to American paintings. The name changed to Milch Gallery in 1967. The firm was dissolved following the death in 1981 of Edward's son Harold C. Milch (1904–81).
Mohr Art Galleries, Toledo, Ohio
Owned by Miss Galliers until 1965.
Achim Moeller Fine Arts, New York
Founded by Achim Moeller in 1984, the gallery specializes in late 19th- and 20th-century European art. As exclusive agent for the estate of Lyonel and Julie Feininger, Moeller possesses the Feininger archive as well as Paul Cummings's archive on Mark Toby and the stock cards of Mark Lilienfeld.
New York dealer of Old Master paintings. Before emigrating to New York in the 1930s, Mont, then known as Frederick Mondschein, owned and directed Galerie Sanct Lucas.
Moody Gallery, Houston
Owned by Elizabeth C. Moody, the gallery specialized in Houston-area artists.
Larom Munson Gallery, New Haven, Conn.
Larom Munson operated the Little Gallery at 39 Palmer Square West, Princeton, N.J., from 1947 to 1962, and the Munson Gallery, 33 Whitney St. and 275 Orange St., New Haven, Conn.
Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York and Houston
Established in 1950 by Tibor de Nagy. A branch, Tibor de Nagy Gallery Texas, Inc., in Houston, became known as Watson/de Nagy & Company in 1976.
Tibor de Nagy (1908–93)
Art dealer; New York.
An association of visual and performing artists residing in Chicago.
Peter and Fritz Nathan, Zurich
Swiss dealers. Fritz Nathan (the father) began the firm, which is continued by his son. The gallery specializes in Old Master and modern paintings, especially Delacroix.
Neue Galerie, Vienna
Founded in 1923 by Otto Kallir, the gallery specialized in the work of the Austrian Expressionists. Kallir fled Vienna in 1938, selling his gallery to his secretary in an attempt to secure his business during the Nazi period. He exported much of his stock to Paris, where he established the Galerie St. Etienne. He fled Paris within a year, placing much of his stock in storage and taking only a small portion with him to New York, where he established the Galerie St. Étienne. The works of art he left in Paris were not looted and Kallir was able to reclaim them after the war. He also took possession again of the Vienna gallery. After the war the Neue Galerie collaborated with Galerie St. Étienne, New York, but was later dissolved.
J.[Israel] B.[er] Neumann, Berlin, Munich, and New York
J. B. Neumann (1887–1961) opened his first gallery in Berlin in 1911, exhibiting works by Munch and members of Die Brücke. In 1915-16 he was secretary to the Berlin Secession. From 1921 to 1927 he had an exclusive contract with Max Beckman. Neumann moved to New York in 1923, leaving the Berlin gallery to Karl Nierendorf and the Munich gallery to Günther Franke. Directed New Art Circle.
The New Arts (Gallery), Houston
Founded in 1956, the gallery closed c. 1974. Owner was Kathryn Swenson.
Newhouse Galleries, New York
Started in St. Louis by Clyde Newhouse (1920–86), the gallery moved to New York, where it sold Old Master paintings. The gallery is closed but responds to requests for information.
Newman Galleries, Philadelphia
Established in 1865 by George and Adolph Newman, the gallery specialized in 19th- and 20th-century American paintings, watercolors, and prints. In 1893 the gallery was forced to move, and the brothers dissolved their partnership. George opened a gallery at 1622 Chestnut St. and Adolph opened the Adolph Newman and Son Gallery at 704 Chestnut St. with his son Walter. Adolph retired in 1920, leaving the gallery to his son and grandson, Walter Andrew Newman.
Nierendorf Gallery, Cologne and New York
Karl Nierendorf (1889–1947), an art dealer and collector in Cologne and New York, established Kairos Verlag, which published the magazine Der Strom and represented the work of Hans Hansen and the drawings of Max Ernst and others. In 1919 Nierendorf founded the Gesellschaft der Künstler, and the following year the Galerie Nierendorf in Cologne, representing the works of the Blaue Reiter, Otto Dix, and Hans Cürlis. In 1923 Nierendorf took over J. B. Neumann's gallery in Berlin after the owner's departure for New York. In 1936 Nierendorf himself immigrated to New York, where he established the Galerie Nierendorf. Following his sudden death, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum purchased his collection of works by Oskar Kokoschka, Paul Klee, Marc Chagall, Lyonel Feininger, and Ernst Kirchner.
Niveau Gallery, New York
Specialized in late 19th- and early 20th-century painting.
Lee Nordness Gallery, New York
Established by Lee Nordness. Closed in 1966, when Lee Nordness Galleries Art Advisory Section, Inc., was established. The Lee Nordness Exhibition Section was established c. 1966 for the exhibition and sale of paintings and sculpture.
Nystad Oude Kunst, The Hague
A four-generation family business dealing in art and antiques for the past 128 years. Originally specialized in antique furniture and decorative art but became one of the foremost dealers in Holland for European paintings, primarily Dutch 17th-century paintings and drawings.
Objects Gallery, San Antonio, Tex.
Under the directorship of Caroline Lee Bozzini, the gallery exhibited arts and crafts of the Southwest and Central America.
O'Brien Galleries, Chicago and Scottsdale, Ariz.
Founded in 1855, it was Chicago's first art gallery and one of the oldest family-owned-and-operated galleries in the country. The gallery was called by several names, including O'Brien's Art Emporium, O'Brien Art Galleries, O'Brien Galleries, House of O'Brien, and M. O'Brien & Sons. The gallery remained in Chicago until 1941, closed during the war, and resumed operation in Scottsdale, Ariz., in the 1950s. Three generations of O'Briens (Martin, William, and William, Jr.) ran the gallery before it moved to Arizona.
Origins Gallery, Boston
Owned and directed by Edyth Shulman, the gallery specialized in tribal art, especially Eskimo (Inuit) art. The gallery was located on Newbury Street, c. 1970–72, and in Cambridge, c. 1972–78.
James St. L. O'Toole-Reinhardt Galleries, New York
From 1936 to 1939, James St. L. O'Toole held a managerial position with the [Paul] Reinhardt Gallery. In 1939 he established his own gallery, James St. L. O'Toole, Inc., aka James St. L. O'Toole Gallery, Ltd., which closed in 1952.
Alexandre Joseph Paillet (1743–1814)
Major auctioneer in late 18th-century Paris, holding 145 sales between 1774 and 1793. Between 1777 and 1789 Paillet served as an agent of the crown, acquiring paintings for the museum in the Louvre.
Betty Parsons Gallery, New York
Betty Parsons was director of the Wakefield Bookshop Gallery, 1940–44, and director of the contemporary section of the Mortimer Brandt Gallery, 1944–46. She opened Betty Parsons Gallery in 1946 at 11 E. 57th St., later moving to 24 W. 57th St. Artists represented included many abstract expressionists.
Passedoit Gallery, New York
Operated by Georgette Passedoit.
Perls Gallery, New York
Hugo Perls was a dealer/scholar in Berlin until c. 1940, when he moved to New York. Klaus Perls (b. 1912) continued the gallery, which specialized in 20th-century art. Younger brother of Frank Perls.
Frank Perls Gallery, Beverly Hills, Calif.
Established 1939. Frank Perls (1910–75) was the older son of Hugo Perls and brother of art dealer Klaus Gunther Perls (b. 1912), owner of Perls Galleries, New York.
Joan Peterson Gallery, Boston
Established in the late 1950s, closed in 1981, the gallery showed the work of the leading regional modernists, including Richard E. Filipowski, Jason Berger, and Marilyn Powers.
Galerie Georges Petit, Paris
Georges Petit (1856–1920) inherited his father's firm of picture dealers (founded in 1846), continuing his father's interest in representing contemporary artists. Like his rival Durand-Ruel, Georges Petit, specialized in works of the Impressionists. In addition to important retrospectives of Renoir, Pissaro, and Sisley, the Galerie Georges Petit became the site of important auction sales. Following the death of Georges Petit in 1920, the gallery was acquired by Étienne Bignou and Gaston and Josse Bernheim-Jeune. Bernheim-Jeune had owned a share in the gallery since at least 1900. In 1929 Georges Keller was hired to be director. The gallery continued until 1933, when it closed and the assets were sold at auction.
Galerie Paul Petrides, Paris
The gallery specialized in 20th-century art. Petrides was an expert on Vlaminck.
Phoenix Gallery, New York
Cooperative art gallery.
Dr. Eduard Plietzsch (1886–1961), Berlin
Art historian specializing in Dutch painting and collector. One of the directors, with Kurt Benedikt, of Galerie van Diemen & Co.
Poindexter Gallery, New York
Founded by Elinor Poindexter.
Edwin David Porter (b. 1912)
Painter, sculptor, gallery owner; Wainscott, N.Y. Porter opened the G Place Gallery with Caresse Crosby in 1943.
Stephen Radich Gallery, New York
Stephen Radich was director of the Martin Widdinfield Gallery, 818 Madison Ave., in 1959. The following year he changed the name of the gallery to Stephen Radich Gallery. Closed in 1969.
Barclay's Bank, London: Records
Jack Rasmussen Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Operated by Jack Rasmussen at 313 G St., N.W., from 1978–88. Rasmussen was a painter, former director of the Washington Project for the Arts, and founding member of the Washington Art Dealers Association.
Galerie Ravel, Austin, Tex.
Established in 1976, the gallery specialized in prints of American and European artists and works of contemporary Latin American artists.
Dealer; author of Art Sales (London, 1888).
Frank K. M. Rehn, New York
Established in 1918 at 6 W. 50th St., the gallery was owned by Frank Knox Morton Rehn, son of the marine painter Frank Knox Morton Rehn (1848–1914). John Clancy was the gallery director.
American scholar of 19th- and 20th-century French art; critic
Galerie Rive Gauche, Paris
Pompidou/doc: Records, c. 1950–70.
Thomas V. Robinson Fine Arts Gallery, Houston
19th- and 20th-century painting and sculpture.
Roko Gallery, New York
Established in 1946 by Michael Leon Freilich, the gallery featured work by young, lesser-known artists.
Galerie Rosart, Amersfoort
Léonce Rosenberg, Paris
French dealer and major promoter of contemporary French art between the two World Wars, Léonce Rosenberg took over control of his father's gallery with his brother Paul in 1906. The partnership ended in 1910. Following WWI, he opened Galerie de l'Effort Moderne and published 40 issues of Bulletin l'Effort Moderne, in which he promoted the modern style.
Paul Rosenberg, Paris and New York
French dealer, brother and one-time partner of Léonce Rosenberg. Following WWI, Paul Rosenberg succeeded in wooing Picasso, Braque and Leger away from his brother and Daniel Kahnweiler. Paul Rosenberg established an international reputation and opened a gallery in London with his brother-in-law Jacques Helft before he leaving Paris in 1939 and settling in New York, where he opened a gallery in 1940. His New York gallery was managed by his son, Alexander and continued to be an important force in modern art.
Rosenberg and Stiebel, New York
Founded by Jacob Rosenbaum c. 1860–70 in Frankfurt am Main as a dealer in "Kleinkunst," including factory-made German porcelain and Renaissance and medieval objects. His son Isaak Rosenbaum continued the business, selling Old Master paintings and bringing his nephews Saemy Rosenberg and Hans and Eric Stiebel to work with him. After WWI, Hans Stiebel moved to Paris, where he became a dealer in French 18th-century furniture and objets d'art. With the rise of Hitler, Isaak Rosenbaum opened a gallery in Amsterdam, Saemy and his brother Raphael Rosenberg established a gallery in London, and in 1939, Eric Stiebel started a gallery in New York. Following WII, Saemy and Hans joined Eric in New York. The firm was involved in the sale of a number of works brought from Europe after the war. Among those who sold through the gallery were the Rothschilds. Hans Stiebel died in 1964; Saemy Rosenberg died in 1970; and Eric Stiebel died in September 2000. Eric’s son, Gerald continued the gallery known by then as Stiebel, Ltd. until it closed in 2014. The gallery records are now at The Frick Collection’s Frick Art Reference Library. The archive currently is being processed and a finding aid will be forthcoming. Contact the Frick’s Archives Department for information.
Galerie Rosengart, Lucerne
Gallery maintains comprehensive archive.
Edward Beatty Rowan (1898–1946)
Founder and director of The Little Gallery, Cedar Rapids, 1928–34. Because of his success with the Little Gallery, in 1931 the American Federation of Arts chose him to be the director of a new experimental art center in Cedar Rapids. Rowan was affiliated with the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard before going to Cedar Rapids and served as Chief, Public Buildings Administration, 1930s–40s.
Henri (1815–1906) & Arthur (1858–1932) Le Roy, Brussels
1840–1940; dealers of Dutch, Flemish and French artists, especially 16th-18th century.
Firma D. Sala & Zoonen, Leiden and the Hague
Frame maker and dealer, established 1825 in Leiden. At the beginning of the 20th century, Simon Sala established a gallery in the Hague, which operated until 1951. Henri Sala continued the frame-making business in Leiden (sold c. 1935).
Harry Salpeter (1895–1967)
Writer, art critic, gallery owner; New York.
Santa Monica Art Gallery, Santa Monica, Calif.
Established as a commercial art gallery by librarians at the Santa Monica Library. Exhibited abstract art from 1947 to 1965, when the building was torn down. The artists were mostly local and amateur, with the exceptions of artists such as Hans Burkhardt, Wayne Thiebaud, Helen Lundeberg, Stanton Macdonald-Wright, June Wayne, Rico Lebrun, Lorser Feitelson, Francis de Erdely, and Bill Brice.
Schaeffer Galleries, Berlin and New York
Owned and directed by Hanns Schaeffer. Specialized in Old Master paintings and drawings, originally focusing on works by Flemish and Dutch masters. The gallery operated in Berlin from 1925 to 1939 and in New York from 1936 to the 1990s.
Bertha Schaefer Gallery, New York
Bertha Schaefer (1895–1971) opened Bertha Schaefer Interiors in 1924. In 1944, she established the Bertha Schaefer Gallery. Initially her focus was the work of American painters and sculptors; she eventually included European artists. Following her death in 1972, the gallery's name was changed to the New Bertha Schaefer Gallery.
Alois Jakob Schardt (1889–1983)
German art historian and museum director.
Herman Schaus (1850–:1911)
Art dealer, New York.
Galka E. Scheyer
Born in Germany in 1889, in 1924 Scheyer moved to New York and became the American representative of the Blue Four (Lyonel Feininger, Alexei Jawlensky, Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee). The following year she moved to to California, becoming the European representative for the Oakland Museum. She lectured widely and arranged exhibitions of the Blue Four. Her collection of paintings is housed at the Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena.
Schneider-Gabriel Galleries, New York
Owned by Albert Schneider.
Arlene Schnitzer (b. 1929)
Founder and director of the Fountain Gallery in Portland, Oreg.
Schoelkopf Gallery, Ltd., New York
Established in 1962, the gallery specialized in 20th-century American painting and sculpture. It closed in 1991 following Schoelkopf's death.
Manfred Schwartz (1909–70)
Painter and gallery owner; New York. Owned Gallery 144 West 13th Street, New York, c. 1931–34.
Scott & Fowles, New York
Established 1904, closed c. 1943. [See also Martin Birnbaum]
Jacques Seligmann et. Cie., Paris, and Germain Seligman & Co., New York
Jacques Seligmann founded the firm of Jacques Seligmann & fils in Paris in 1880. In 1912 the firm split into two independent galleries. The New York branch opened in the 1920s with Seligmann's son Germain Seligman as director [Germain dropped the last "n" of his father's name]. The firm was reunited after WWII. Among those closely associated with Seligmann and his son were Cesar M. De Hauke, Eugene Glaenzer, Georges Haardt, Werner Jucker, Osar A. Liechti, Mrs. Theresa D. Parker, Arthur Peck, Otto Pojes, Hugo Rose, Arnold Seligmann, René Seligmann, Clyfford Trevor, and Hans Waegen.
Helen Shlien Gallery, Boston
Established in 1978, closed in 1985, the gallery was first located at 348-352 Congress St. and moved in 1983 to 14 Newbury St.
Signa Gallery, East Hampton, N.Y.
Established in 1957 by artists Alfornso Ossorio, John Little, and Elizabeth Parker, the gallery exhibited the work of contemporary East Hampton artists, including Franz Kline, Willem de Kooning, Lee Krasner, James Brooks, Balcomb Greene, and Perle Fine. Closed 1960.
C. G. Sloan & Co., Washington, D.C.
Auction house, founded in late 19th century. Closed in 1960s.
Smelik & Stokking Galleries, the Hague
Originally "Prince," and "de Singel," and Antiquiteiten en Oude Kunst b.v. in Ridderkerk, it was later known as Smelik & Stokking on the Noordeinde in the Hague.
Benjamin K. Smith (1872–1973)
An employee of the O'Brien Galleries (1912–22), Chicago.
John Smith [The House of Smith, aka John Smith & Son], London
English dealer early 19th century. Author of A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters. 9 vols. London, 1829-1842.
Smith Anderson Gallery, Palo Alto, Calif.
Contemporary abstract painting, works on paper, and sculpture.
Craig Hugh Smyth
Art historian, professor of Renaissance Italian art, Smyth was involved in the recuperation of confiscated works of art after WWII.
Space Gallery, Los Angeles
Established in 1975 by Edward Den Lau, the gallery represented, among others, Bob Alderette, John Davis, Christel Dillbohner, Matsumi Kanemitsu, Seiji Kunishima, Norman Lundin, Ann Page, Rachel Rosenthal (includes video), Norman Schwab, Olga Seem, Tom Stanton, and Masami Teraoka.
Victor Spark (1898–1991)
Art dealer and appraiser.
Galerie Spies, Paris
Galerie St. Étienne, Paris and New York
Galerie St. Étienne was established in Paris in 1938 by Otto Kallir, who had fled Vienna, where he owned and operated the Neue Galerie. Both galleries specialized in works by the Austrian Expressionists; the New York gallery also represented the work of Grandma Moses. Kallir was forced to flee Paris within a year of establishing his gallery there and opened the Galerie St. Étienne in New York, which is currently run by his granddaughter, Jane Kallir. Kallir bought a large number of works from the June 30, 1939, Fischer sale, sending them to the United States for resale. Paintings sent by Kallir from Vienna to Paris and stored in Paris during the war were not looted and were returned to him. Kallir helped a number of Jewish families reclaim works from their collections after the war. The gallery continues to work with these families and has information about a number of pre-war collections.
Stable Gallery, New York
Eleanor Ward opened the gallery on West 58th St. in 1953, showing controversial new artists during the 1950s and 1960s. Closed in 1970.
Staempfli Gallery, New York
Art gallery; established c. 1959. Specializes in contemporary American and European painting and sculpture. Co-director Philip Bruno.
Steel Gallery, Bridgehampton, N.Y.
Owned by Arthur J. Steel, gallery dealt with American artists.
Stendahl Art Galleries, Los Angeles
Established in 1921 by Earl Stendahl, the initial focus of the galleries was pre-Columbian and "primitive" art; later the focus shifted to contemporary artists.
Marie Sterner Gallery, New York, and Bridgehampton, N.Y.
Marie Sterner was instrumental in advancing the cause of American artists in the early 20th century. Sterner opened her first gallery in 1923. Her gallery was eventually bought by Leonard Clayton.
Hugh Stix, New York (d. 1992)
Gallery president and art administrator, Stix founded the Artists' Gallery in 1936. He was also administrator for the Museum Purchase Fund. Gloria Vanderbilt annually contributed to the fund, which gave recognition to young artists by purchasing their work.
David Stuart, Los Angeles (1910–84)
Owned and operated by David Stuart, the gallery dealt in pre-Columbian and African art as well as contemporary, especially Californian, art.
Galerie der Sturm
Trained in Berlin, Suhr came to the United States to work under Wilhelm Valentiner at the Detroit Institute of Arts in 1927. In 1933 he moved to New York, where he became restorer to the Frick Collection while retaining his private clientele. He was chief conservator for the New York World's Fair in 1939. After WWII he worked closely with the art market in New York, especially for Rosenberg and Stiebel and others.
19th-century French art dealer.
Contemporary Swedish artists and, increasingly, contemporary French artists, such as Léger, Picasso, Braque. Worked with Kahnweiler and other French dealers. Old Master paintings appear to have been sold through auctions rather than handled directly. Later merged with Galerie Bonnier [see for history].
Swetzoff Gallery, Boston
Art gallery, established c. 1948 as Frameshop Gallery, with Hyman and Semour Swetzoff as directors. Hyman assumed exclusive ownership and ran the gallery until his death in 1968.
Tanager Gallery, New York
Located on E. 10th St., 1952–62, Tanager Gallery operated as a cooperative outlet for a group of New York artists, primarily Abstract Expressionists.
Alphonse Wyatt Thibaudeau, London
Firm of art dealers, including Frederick A. White, whose clients included principally Alphonse Legros, Tissot, and Burne-Jones.
Thomas Lewallen Gallery, Santa Monica, Calif.
Originally called Morgan Thomas Gallery after its owner, the name changed to Thomas Lewallen Gallery in 1977 when Constance Lewallen became an equal partner.
David Croal Thomson (1855–1930)
David Croal Thomson was director of Goupil Gallery, London, and also partner in the firms of Thomas Agnew & Sons, the French Gallery, and Barbizon House, which he partnered with his son Lockett Thomson. In his capacity as a dealer as well as a critic and editor, he was in regular contact with leading artists, dealers, and art historians.
William H. Thomson
Thomson was dealer and the owner of Thomson Galleries; Detroit.
Tortue Gallery, Santa Monica, Calif.
Mallory Freeman was director.
Arthur Tooth & Son, London and New York
Major London-based art dealership in the 19th and 20th centuries. Arthur Tooth founded the firm in the Haymarket, London, in 1842. Initially the firm dealt primarily in 18th- and early 19th-century British paintings and drawings. Beginning in the 1880s, the firm increasingly handled contemporary paintings and an occasional Old Master work; after 1892, art and artifacts show up in the stock inventories. Subsidiaries were established in New York and Paris during the early 20th century. The New York branch closed in 1924.
Truman Gallery, New York
From 1971–79, the gallery was owned and run by Jock Truman, who had previously worked for Betty Parsons for many years. Exhibited Louis Nevelson and Ad Reinhardt.
Percy Moore Turner, London
Samuel Courtauld's picture dealer.
Curt Valentin Gallery, New York
Established by Curt Valentin in 1937, the gallery was known from 1937–51 as Buchholz Gallery. Between 1934 and 1937, Valentin had run his own gallery in the art department of Buchhandlung Buchholz, Berlin. In 1939 the New York gallery moved from West 46th Street to a modest building on 57th Street. It was renamed Curt Valentin Gallery in 1951 and continued under that name until Valentin's death in 1955.
Valentine Gallery, New York
Established in 1926 by Valentine Dudensing (b. 1892) as Dudensing, the gallery was renamed F. Valentine Dudensing and later, Valentine Gallery. The gallery, which represented Louis M. Eilshemius, John Kane, C. S. Price, and Henri Matisse, closed in 1948.
Valentiner was the founding director of the Detroit Institute of Art (1924–46); director-consultant of the Los Angeles County Museum (1946–54); director, Getty Museum, 1954; director, North Carolina Museum of Art (1955–58). He was also editor of Art in America, 1913–31.
Valley House Gallery, Dallas
The painter Donald S. Vogel established the gallery in 1951 and was its director. From 1951 to 1956 the gallery was known as the Betty McLean Gallery. It exhibited 20th-century European and American art.
Galerie Paul Valloton, Lausanne
Albert du Vannes (1882–1962)
Born Albert Di Giovanni in Naples, Italy, moved in 1894 to St. Paul, Minn., and c. 1902 to New York City. He later gave up painting and opened an art gallery. He changed his name in 1926.
Fonds Vauxcelles, Paris
Venduehuis der Notarissen, The Hague
Vickery, Atkins & Torrey
Important early 20th-century art gallery in San Francisco established by W. K. Vickery with his nephew, Henry Atkins (J. Henry P. Atkins). The gallery handled primarily etchings, paintings, watercolors by Maynard Dixon, William Keith, Francis McComas, Arthur Putnam, et al., as well as oriental ceramics and jewelry designed by Atkins.
Dina Vierny, Paris
Maillol's last model. Active as a dealer in Paris from at least 1954.
James Vigeveno Galleries, Los Angeles and Ojai, Calif.
Exhibited primarily French and American paintings, as well as Chinese ceramics and works by Dutch and Flemish masters. In 1956, the gallery moved from Los Angeles to Ojai. Paintings from the gallery were exhibited periodically 1957–64 at the Bel-Air Hotel, Los Angeles.
Ambroise Vollard, Paris (1867–1939)
Influential patron and dealer of painters of French artists working in Paris during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. When he died in 1939, his large collection of paintings was divided between his heirs. In April 1940, Vollard's executor, the dealer Martin Fabiani, shipped 560 paintings from his collection to the United States. The shipment was intercepted by the British in Bermuda as enemy property and stored at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, during the war. For inventory of paintings shipped, see NARA.
Vose Galleries, Providence and Boston
Established in Providence, R.I., in 1841 by Ransom Hicks and acquired by Joseph Vose later in the same year. Seth Morton Vose joined his father in 1850 and became the director in 1855. Until the late 1860s the primary business was frame making, gilding, and selling art supplies. Seth's son Robert C. Vose joined the firm in 1896 and managed the Boston gallery from 1897. The Providence gallery closed in 1910 after the death of Seth, and the Boston gallery became known as R. C. and N. M. Vose and, after 1924, the Robert C. Vose Galleries. In 1952 the name changed to Vose Galleries of Boston, Inc. Vose Galleries specialized in American and European paintings.
Waddell Galley, New York
Established c. 1963 by Richard Waddel and operated by him until 1973. Represented contemporary American and European artists.
Jane Wade (b. 1925)
Art dealer; New York. Employed by Curt Valentin Gallery and Fine Arts Associates, Inc.
Maynard Walker Gallery, New York
Established in New York c. 1935 by Maynard Walker, the gallery opened a branch in Hollywood, Calif., in 1938. Walker was a primary promoter of the Regionalists during the 1930s and 1940s.
John Wanamaker Department Store Art Gallery, Philadelphia
Wanamaker's Department Store was established in 1861; the art gallery, which is now defunct, opened in 1881.
Ellis Kirkham Waterhouse (d. 1987)
Waterman Gallery, Amsterdam
Old Master Dutch paintings.
Watson/de Nagy & Company, Houston
Contemporary art. Known prior to 1976 as Tibor de Nagy Gallery Texas, Inc., a branch of Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, the gallery became known as the Watson Gallery after 1985.
Julius Weitzner, New York and London
Old Master and 19th-century paintings. Papers not available.
Westerly Gallery, New York
Cooperative art gallery; New York. Founded by a group of young artists who had studied with Theodoros Stamos.
Westwood Art Association, Los Angeles
Art gallery that represented artist Henry Miller.
Weyhe Gallery, New York
American prints and drawings.
Ruth White Gallery, New York
Established in 1956, the gallery specialized in contemporary art.
Wildenstein Galleries, Paris, London, New York
Wildenstein & Company was founded in Paris in 1875 by Nathaniel Daniel Wildenstein, the grandfather of Daniel Wildenstein, the present head of the family firm, who works closely with his sons Guy and Alec. Wildenstein originally specialized in French 18th-century painting and was largely responsible for establishing its popularity in America and Europe. By the 1900s, the gallery was handling pictures, sculptures, and works of art of all schools from the 14th-century primitives to contemporary European and American artists. In 1902 Wildenstein opened a gallery in New York, followed in 1933 by a gallery in London, and in 1940 by another in Buenos Aires. In 1972, the firm opened a gallery in Tokyo. The Wildenstein family purchased 49 percent of New York's Pace Gallery in 1993, signaling their expanding interest in contemporary art.
Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles
From 1965–79, Nicholas Wilder discovered and promoted emerging young artists in Los Angeles and New York, including Bruce Nauman, Joe Goode, and Tom Holland. By 1979, his best known artists had moved to the James Corcoran Gallery and Wilder moved to New York.
Willard Gallery, New York
Established in 1936 by Marian Willard as East River Gallery. In 1938 the name was changed to Neumann-Willard Gallery, and c. 1945 it became known as the Willard Gallery.
Harry Wine, Dublin
Howard Wise Gallery, New York and Cleveland, Ohio
Established in Cleveland in 1950. Specialized in kinetic art and light sculpture. Closed in 1971.
Kunsthandel Van Wisselingh & Co., Amsterdam and London
Art dealers. Important dealers of works by the artists of The Hague School. During his early career he worked with Goupil, Paris.
George Wittenborn, Inc., New York
Important art publishing firm, bookstore on Madison Aveneue.
Wolff Gallery, New York
Womanspace Gallery, Los Angeles
Art gallery. Founded 1972 as cooperative gallery for feminist activities.
Roger Wong Gallery, Los Angeles
Established in 1974 and operated by Roger Wong, the gallery closed in 1983.
Workshop Gallery, New York
H. Wunderlich & Co./Kennedy & Company
Established as a print gallery in 1874 by Hermann Wunderlich. Following Wunderlich's death in 1892, his partner, Edward Kennedy took over. In 1912 the gallery's name changed to Kennedy & Company and in 1952 it became Kennedy Galleries. As H. Wunderlich & Company, the gallery handled primarily fashionable prints, Old Master prints and a few contemporary artists, including James McNeill Whistler, David Cameron, and Seymour Hayden. The firm is not affiliated with Wunderlich & Co., founded in the 1980s.
Zabriskie Gallery, New York, and Galerie Zabriskie, Paris
Established by Virginia Zabriskie, the gallery specialized in modernism, Surrealism, and contemporary art and photography. Paris gallery officially opened 1977 but work began there in 1976.
Galerie Zborowski, Paris
According to Malcolm Gee in Dealers, Critics and Collectors…(1981), correspondence and press clippings were with Mme P. Jourdain, Paris.
AAA: Archives of American Art, Washington, D.C, with regional offices in New York and at the Huntington Library, San Marino California. (Note: many of the files at AAA are available on microfilm at regional centers and/or through interlibrary loan)
Arch. N., Paris: Archives Nationale, Paris
BAAJD: Bibliothèque d'Art et d'Archéologie Jacques Doucet
BM/P&D: British Museum, Department of Prints and Drawings, London
Courtauld: Courtauld Institute, University of London
FARL: Frick Art Reference Library, New York
G.A. Amst.: Gemeente Archief, Amsterdam (municipal archive of Amsterdam)
GRI: Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles
GRI/PI: Getty Research Institute, Project for the Study of Collecting and Provenance (Provenance Index), Los Angeles
JPML: J. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York
LACMA/DSC: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Doris Stein Research and Design Center for Costumes and Textiles
LEEDS: University of Leeds
MMA/EP: Department of European Paintings, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
MOMA: Museum of Modern Art, New York
NCSA: North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, N.C.
NGC: National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa
Orsay: Musée d'Orsay, Documentation, Paris
Pompidou/doc: Centre Pompidou, documentation
RKD: Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Dokumentatie, The Hague; www.rkd.nl
Service Photo: Service Photographique de la Centre des monuments nationaux, Paris
TATE: Tate Gallery, London, Archives
Vanderbilt: Vanderbilt University, Nashville Tennessee
V&A: Victoria and Albert Museum, London
VGM: Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
WI: Wildenstein Institute, Paris
ZADIK: Zentralarchiv des Internationalen Kunsthandels [post 1945], Bonn; www.kah-bonn.de/bibliothek